Myanmar’s Historical Experiences with Executive Policymaking (2018)

Su Mon Thazin Aung and Matthew Arnold

A section within their Asia Foundation Report Managing Change: Executive Policymaking in Myanmar

English AND Burmese versions downloadable on this page.

Abstract on entire report:

“Since 2011, Myanmar has undergone a daunting transition from entrenched military rule to a more democratic form of governance that can address longstanding political, economic and social fissures. As the transition continues, what has become increasingly clear is that one of the biggest challenges for the government is how to solve technical problems by crafting policies that achieve sustainable, positive outcomes. Establishing the structures and processes for effective policymaking is critical to providing guidance for government policymakers grappling with many issues for the first time.

This report provides an introduction to policymaking in Myanmar, focusing on policymaking by the executive branch of the Union government in Nay Pyi Taw and detailing the key actors and processes that define policymaking in the country. Its primary goal is to contribute to a robust public discourse on how policymaking actors and processes in the country can be strengthened, without which it will be difficult for Myanmar to catalyze and sustain a host of reforms critical to democratic governance, economic growth, and peace. The report concludes with recommendations on how policymaking can be strengthened to better support reform.”


Singapore Policy History Project

Useful online resource for those historians wishing to do research on the origins of Singapore development and administrative policies.

Official Description:

“The Singapore Policy History Project presents the policy paths taken by government agencies throughout Singapore’s history. The Project is a thematic presentation of our policy history through actual policy papers, oral history interviews, photos, audio-visual recordings, and newspaper articles. This is particularly useful for the younger generations, as it provides documentary evidence of Singapore’s policy in the making. It also presents valuable lessons for our government to fine-tune policies to serve Singaporeans better. Public agencies have used these records in publications and exhibitions to remember their own contributions towards nation building.”

Link here.

The Evolution of the Community Health Worker program in Papua New Guinea (2017)

Cathy Lepi Pilang, Marion Grey, Florin Oprescu

Remote and Rural Health November 2017 Volume 17 Issue 4

OpenAccess version here.

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a special history in regard to the training of Community Health Workers (CHWs) and is currently preparing its frontline health workforce to serve the 85% of the total PNG population of 7.3 million people who live in rural and remote settings. This article identifies and explains the five major developmental stages in the current CHW training program, as well as the changes that have occurred over the past century. The developmental stages are: (1) traditional; (2) early contact; (3) innovation; (4) the 1980s; and (5) new millennium. These developmental stages are discussed in the context of the early literature and investigation by the primary author and examination of the lived experiences of early missionary health workers and local people. This paper documents the development of a CHW program in PNG from the colonisation period, which began in 1883, to the present day. As a developing nation, PNG has gone through many challenges and changes to its healthcare system and has gradually developed an effective program to train its frontline primary health care (PHC) workforce. This article contributes new information with regard to the past and current development of CHW programs in PNG as well as in other developing countries. The training of competent CHWs with the essential skills and knowledge may help deliver quality and cost-effective PHC services to the rural majority and the urban disadvantaged, thereby fulfilling the PNG government’s National Health Plan for 2011-2020. Systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of the CHW program will provide guidance for continued development of this frontline health workforce. Improving and introducing a competency-based curriculum is an essential step towards building a healthier nation.

The Evolution of Counterinsurgency Warfare: A Historical Overview (2011)

Oscar Palma Morales

Revista de Relaciones Internacionales, Estrategia y Seguridad

“This paper makes a historical overview of the evolution of counterinsurgency in order to understand that this concept has not been rigid and static through the ages. It intends to explain why the understanding of counterinsurgency, its objectives and scope, the actors involved in its practice, and especially the legal and legitimate methods applied, are as they are conceived today. In essence, what began as the use of violence to destroy the insurgency along with its social base through all available means became a political enterprise to build state institutions in every region in a specific country. This, in order to erode the insurgency’s connection with communities while providing the services required for social and economic development. It also makes an observation of one of the future dilemmas of the debate on counterinsurgency.”

Openaccess version here.

The United States’ Cyber Warfare History: Implications on Modern Cyber Operational Structures and Policymaking (2017)

Omry Haizler

The Institute for National Security Studies, Tel Aviv University

“This article will touch upon two main components of the United States’ cybersphere and cyber warfare. First, it will review three cyber incidents during different time periods, as the US infrastructure, mechanisms, and policies were gradually evolving. It will analyze the conceptual, operational, and legislative evolution that led to the current decision-making paradigm and institutional structure of the US cybersphere. Secondly, the paper will examine the procedures and policies of the Intelligence Community (IC), and the US cyber operational structure. It will review the missions and background of the IC and its responsibilities before, during, and after a cyberattack, and will touch upon the IC’s organizational architecture. The paper will also briefly review the current cyber threats in the United States and will elaborate on some of the fundamental strategies and policies that it uses to provide a suitable response. Lastly, it analyzes the cybersphere’s macro-level, addressing the data coordination of the IC’s agencies, as well as the federal, state, and private sector institutions during a cyber crisis.”

Openaccess version here.

Introduction: Changing Waterscapes in the Mekong Region – Historical Background and Context (2009)

François Molle, Tira Foran and Philippe Floch

n book: Contested Waterscapes in the Mekong Region: Hydropower, Livelihoods and Governance

Openaccess version here.

The Delta Machine: Water Management in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta in Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (2009)

David Biggs, Fiona Miller, Chu Thai Hoanh and François Molle

In Contested waterscapes in the Mekong Region : hydropower, livelihoods and governance, p.203-225

Openaccess version downloadable here.

Historical origins of persistent inequality in Nigeria (2016)

Belinda Archibong

“Horizontal inequality by ethnic group has remained remarkably persistent for wealth, education, and access to certain services in Nigeria. While significant gains in the reduction of inequality and improvement in access have been made for more locally administered services, outcomes are stickier and largely divergent for wealth, education, and historically federally administered services like grid-based power access. Notable is the increasing or stagnant inequality of access to these measures in the northwest and northeast ethnic/geopolitical zones and a remarkable divergence for wealth outcomes for these two zones versus the rest of the country over the 1990–2013. This paper explores different explanations for the patterns observed and puts forth the thesis that persistent inequality in access to education and federally administered services is in large part driven by historical heterogeneous federal government policy towards different groups in Nigeria.”

WIDER Working Paper, No. 2016/161, ISBN 978-92-9256-205-2, The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER), Helsinki

OpenAccess pdf here.

“Historical Analysis of Educational Policies in Nigeria: Trends and Implications” (2018)

B. Daniel-Kalio

International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 11(2), 247-264.

“After a critical review of relevant literature, examination of education ordinances and codes, National Policy documents and relevant documents of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the paper showed that different educational policies have been formulated since the colonial era to date. The paper reviewed the different literature and presented the education ordinances, codes and policies under three (3) eras which are; the pre- amalgamation era (1848 -1908), post-amalgamation to Independence (1914-1960) era and post-independence (1961) to 2013. In all, the paper observed frequency in the change of the educational policy thrust of the nation and showed that three (3) ordinances were enacted in the pre-amalgamation era, ten (10) in the post- amalgamation to Independence era and ten (10) from Independence to 2013. The paper showed that most of the educational policies and amendments were centered more on reviewing the existing policies even after Independence. No attempt was made on formulating an educational policy that is original and indigenous to Nigeria. The paper highlighted different trends and specific issues on the disparity between the educational policies and its implementation in the context of the wider national development processes. Finally, the paper also made some conclusions and recommended an adoption of a holistic and systematic approach to the formulation of future policies. It also suggested a paradigm shift from overlooking the nursery education to paying more critical attention to that stage of education as it represents the beginning of the developmental stages of human development. This is to reflect the current realities of our time.”

Online open access version here.

Mapping Historical Dialogue (Histories of Conflict)(2021)

Online resource here.

“Welcome to the Mapping Historical Dialogue Project! Too often, conflict resolution and conflict transformation projects ignore the past relations between stakeholders and the memory of the violent past as an independent constitutive element of the conflict. The challenges advocates of historical dialogue face are to transform the history of a conflict from a liability to a resource in conflict resolution — to imagine the engagement of the memory of past conflicts as an opportunity to develop mechanisms of acknowledgment and reciprocal recognition.”